ERRORS IN USING INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES


ERRORS MADE BY THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMPN 6 PALEMBANG IN USING INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES

 

RIA ARINI *

Abstract : The purpose in this research are to find out the students’ errors using inflectional morphemes especially in  adding “-s” in the plural noun, -ing in the progressive, and “-ed” in the past and to know the percentage of the students’ erros in using inflectional morphemes especially in  adding “-s” in the plural noun, -ing in the progressive, and “-ed” in the past. The method used in this research was the descriptive method because this method described the facts systematically and analyzes them factually and accurately. There was forty students answered the questions. The question was divided two type questions. Twenty for completion test  and twenty for multiple test. The anallyzed the data by using the procedure of error analysis. The Research found out of from test result that the students made 518 erros. There were 179 errors in using morpheme “-s” in plural noun (34.56%), 178 erros in using morpheme “ed” in the past (34,36%), 161 errors in using morpheme “ –ing” in progressive ( 31,08%). It can be concluded that the students still made erros or got difficulties in using inflectional morphemes especially morphems “-s”, “-ing”, “and “-ed”

Keywords : Errors, Inflectional Morphemes, and Moprhemes

Background

One of the aspect to learn in English is grammar. Grammar of language is the description of the ways in which words can change the form and can be combined into sentences in that language ( Harmer, 2005 : 12).  one of the example about is inflectional morphemes. Morphemes are divided into two morphemes they are free morphemes and bound morphemes( Fromkin and Rodman, 2007 :103). The limitation of this research is about inflectional Morphemes. Inflectional Morphemes are part of bound morpheme. There are eight inflectional morphemes in English ( Fromkin and Rodman, 2007 : 99). There are –s as third person singular person, -ed in past tenses, -ing in progressive, -en in past pasticiple, -s in plural, -‘s in possesive, -er in comparative and –est superlative. Because there are so many part of inflectional morphemes so it was limited by the reseach. The limitation of this research will be discussed about using inflectional morphemes in the morpheme –s in plural noun, -ing in progressive and  morpheme – ed in the past.

The Plural noun morpheme ( Morpheme –s) According to Thomson and Martinet ( 1982 : 25) , “ The Plural of noun is usually made by adding – s to the singular.” There are sixs of the way of the plural formed based on wren and Martin ( 2005: 9-10) there are : (1). The plural of nouns is generally formed by adding –s to the singular as book – books. (2) Noun ending in –s, sh,ch or x form the plural by adding –es to the singular as class – classes.                                              (3) Most noun ending in – o also from the plural by adding –es to singular as bufallo- bufalloes. (4).  Noun ending in – y preceded by consonant, from their plural by changing –y into –i and adding –es as; baby – babies. (5). The following nouns ending in –f or fe from their plural changing – f or fe into v and adding –es;as thief – thieves. (6). Some nouns are used only in the plural like name of dress as trousers, jeans.

The Morphemes – ed in the past tense. The simple past is used to talk about the began and ended in the past(e.g.., yesterday, last night, two days ago, in 1990) Azar, 1992:18). There are six ways to form –ed. an azar (1996:183) states. (1). When a verb ends in consonant ‘ e” add “ –d” to form –ed for example : smile into smiled. (2) when end of verb in one vowel + one consonant, add the double the consonant add – ed like “stop into “stopped”. (3) When end of verb in two vowels + one consonant, add the –ed and do not double the consonant. Like : rain – rained. (4) when ends of verb in two consonant add the – ed, do not double the consonant like “ count into “counted”. (5) when ends verb in consonant + y change “y” to “ i” and add –ed for example study into studied. (6). When ends of verb in vowel + “y” add “ed” do not change “y into “ i” like “ enjoy – enjoyed.

The morpheme –ing form in the progressive tense. According to Azar (1992:29),” there are some rules in forming the morpheme –ing as (1) if the ends of verb “e” drop the “e” and add –ing morpheme for example : hope – hoping (2). If ends of verb in two consonant, just add –ing for example : help into helping. (3) if end of verb two vowels + one consonant, just add –ing for example : rain – raining. (4) if the verb has one syllable and ends in one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant make –ing form. Like stop – stopping. ( 5) if the firs syllable of two syllable verb is stressed, do not double consonant. Like “ visit – visiting.     (6) if the second syllable of two syllable verb is stressed, double the consonant as “ prefer – preferring. ( 7) if the verb ends in vowel “y” keep the “y”, do not change it to “I” for example : “play – Playing. (8). If the verb ends a vowel “ ie” change “ ie” into “y” and add – Ing , for example “ die – dying.

The ilustration above, show there were so many rules to form the word into moprheme –s, ing and –ed. That rules may  be appear an errors made by students at SMPN 6 Palembang by using inflectional morphemes. Since the forming words is difficult and complicated it interested the research about  (1) what are the students errors in using inflectional morphemes and (2) what is the percentage of students’ errors in using inflectional morphemes especially in forming morpheme –s , morpheme –ing and morpheme –ed at SMPN 6 Palembang? The objective of the study are (1) to find out the students errors in using inflectional morpheme especially using morpheme –s in plural noun, morpheme –ing in progressive and morpheme –ed in the past. And ( 2)  to know the percentage errors in using inflectional morphemes especially informing morpheme –s in the plural noun, -ing in the progressive and morpheme –ed in the past at SMPN 6. The result of this study can be useful for the teacher, students and the researcher.

 

The Method of Research

This research was done through a descriptive method because it described the facts systematically and analyze the factually and accurately. Isaac and Michael    (1980:18) state,” The descriptive method in the one that describe systematically the facts are the characteristics of a given population or areas of interest factually and accuratelly.

The population was all the seventh grade students of SMPN 6 Palembang in the academic year of 2008/2009 that were grouped into nine classes and each class consisted about  students. The total number of population is 359 students. 39 Students were takens as the sample. The sample was taken by cluster random sampling.

The Technique for collecting the data was completion test and multiple-choice test. These techniques helped to find out the students errors. Completion items were useful means of testing a studen’s ability to produce acceptable and appropriate form of language ( Heaton, 1990:42). And Multiple choice items can help both students and teacher to identify areas of difficulty(  Heaton, 1991:27). The data was anlayzing the data collected as checking the students answer, identfying the students erros, calculating the number and the percentage of students errors.

Before the test was given by the research, the test material had consulted to advisors in constructing them so the materials really measured the students errors and do the trying out the test of the other class. And used Kuder- Richardson formula 21 to reach the realibility of the test. Fraenkel and wallen (1990 : 136) write that for reserach puposes a useful rule is that realibility should be at least 0.70 and preferably higher.and the result of this research is 0,793. It means the material test are valid and realiable.

Findings.

The data of the result of the test in form of students error in using inflectional moprhemes especially moprhemes –s, -ing and –ed found that the students made errors in using morpheme –s ( 34,56%), the students made errors in using morpheme –ed ( 34, 36%) and the student also made errors in using moprheme –ing ( 31.08%).

 

The discussion

The study deals  with students errros in suing inflectional morphemes –s, -ing, -and –ed”. The material test was done by 39 students as samples, taken from class II.2. to find the the percentage of the students incorrect answer was taken by dividing the number of incorrect answer with total number of test items (40). If the percentages of the students incorrect answer show more than 50% or higher. It means the students made errors but if the percentage of the students incorrect answers show of the students’ incorrect answer show than 50% or lower. It concluded that the students made mistakes. Based on the analyzed ,it  found that in 40 test items in 39 students and found that there were 21 students who made errors and 19 students who made mistakes. The total numbers of errors from 21 students made 518. There were 279 errros in using morpheme –s in plural ( 34,56%), 178 errors in using morpheme-ed in the past ( 34,36), 161 errors in using morpheme-ing in progressive (31.08)

The Errors in using morpheme “-s” in the Plural Nouns

The Morpheme “s” in the plural noun was tested in fourteen test items ( 1,4,6,9,10,13,20,21,28,30,32,34,37,and 39) an out of twenty one students commited errors with 40 items. It was found that the number of errors was 179 items and the percentage of errors was 34,56%.

Most of The errors made the seventh grade students of SMPN 6 Palembang in using morpheme –s such as:

(1)   Errors in forming plural noun by adding –es to the noun for the example potato – potatoes.

(2)   Errors in forming plural noun by changing f or fe into ves to the noun ending in f or fe .” thief – thieves.

(3)   Errors in adding suffix –es to the noun ending in ss” glass – glasses, dress-dresss.

(4)   Errors in dropping y and adding –ies to the noun ending in y. “ baby – babies, dictionary – dictionaries.

The Following are the errors made by the seventh grade students in using the inflectional morphemes.

  1. Item 1 : There are two _____ ( book) on the table.” The answer is “book”. In completing this item, there were 20 studenst who answered correctly ( 95,24%) and 1  students who answered incorrectly (4,76%) the students used “bookes”
  2. Item 4 : ,” One of the _______ ( baby) is sleeping.” The answer is babies. Incompleting this items, there were 21 students who answered incorrectly, 10 students answered “babys” ( 47,61%). 8 students answered “babyed” ( 38.19%) and 3 students answered “babied”(14,29%).
  3. Item 6 : “ The students in my class come many _____ ( country).” The answers is “countries” in completing test there were 21 students who answered incorrectly.
  4. Item 9 : “ My mother made some _____ ( cake) in the kitchen. The answers is “cakes” in completing this item. There were 21 students who answered incorrectly.
  5. Item 10 : “ she buys new _____ ( dress)in the store” the answer is “ dresses”. Here the students were 15 answered incorrectly.
  6. Item 13: “ Lia cooked some _____ ( potato) in the kitchen.” The answers is “ potatoes”. In completing test there were 15 students answered incorretly.
  7. Item 20 ;” The American ______ ( army) begin the war Iraq.” The answers is “armies”. In completing this item, there were 14 students who answered incorrectly.
  8. Item 21 :’ The doctor suggest to him to drink eight …. ( glass) of water everyday. The answer is “ glasses” there were 15 students who answered incorretly ( 76,19%).
  9. Item 28: “ We have two new ….. ( pen). The answer is “pens” there were 5 students answered incorrectly.
  10. Item 30 : “ The food is for two ___ ( baby). The answer is “ babies” there were 18 students answered incorrectly.
  11. Item 32 : “ The police officers catch ____ ( thief). The answer is thieves. There were  w11 answered coreectly and 10 students incorrectly.
  12. Item 34 : “ we All have some problem in out …. ( life) The answer is (lives) there were ii students answered correctly ( 52, 38%) and 10 students answered incorrectly ( 47,62%). There were 4 students answered  “lifes” and 2 students answered living”.
  13. Item 37 : “ Ana wants three ___ ( sandwich) for lunch. The answer is sandwiches. 9  students answered incorrectly. There were answered “ sandwiched, sandwhich and sandwiching”
  14. Item 39 : “We alway use our …. ( dictionary) when we write composition. The answer is “dictionaries”. In the question there were 12 students answered incorrectly.

 

The erros in Using Morpheme “ –ed”

The Morpheme “ed” in pas tense was tested in thirteen test items. ( items 3,8,11,15,17,19,23,24,27,29,31,36,38) and twensty one students committed errors with 40 total of items. It was found that the number of errors was 178 items and the percentage of errors was 34, 36%.Most of errors made by the seventh grade students of SMPN 6 Palembang in using morpheme “-ed” such as

(1). Errors in adding –ed in the end of verb in the sentnces for example “         wash – washed, rain – rained.

(2) Errors in forming –ed when end of verb in one vowel + one consonant,      add the double consonant, for example “ permit – permitted.

(3). Errors in forming –ed when end of verb in consonant + y change “y” to                “i” and add –ed in the sentnce for example : study – studied

The following are the errors made by the seventh grade students in using the inflectional morphemes. The item 3 there were 16 students answered incorrectly , item 8 there were 17 students, item 11 there were 16 students, items 15, there were 17 students, item 17 there were 15 students, item 19 there were 13 students, item 23 there were 13 students, item 24 there were 8 students, item 27 there were 2 students,  item 29, there were 13 students, item 31 there 17 students, , item 36 there were 18 students  and item 38 there were13 students answered incorrectly.

The Errors in using Morpheme “–ing”

The morphemes “ ing” in progressive was tested thirteen test items ( items 2,5,7,12,14,16,18,22,25,26,33,35,40) and out of the twenty one students committed errors with 40 total number of items. It was found that the number of errors was 161 itemsand the percentage of errors was 31.08%.

Most of the errors made by the seventh grade students in using morpheme –ing such as

(1). Errors dropping “ e” in the ends of verb “e” dropp and add _ing morpheme. Example : smile –smiling, shine- shinig.

(2). Errors in forming – ing in the verb has one syllable and end in one vowel + one consonant, double consonant make –ing form. For example .” forget – forgetting.

(3) errors in adding – ing in the end of verb ‘y” in the sentence. : study – studying”

The following are the errors made by the seventh grade students in using the inflectional morphemes. The item 2 there were 13 students answered incorrectly , item 5 there were 20 students, item 7 there were 9 students, items 12, there were 13 students, item 14 there were 6 students, item 16 there were 16 students, item 18 there were 19 students, item 22 there were 5 students, item 25 all of the students made errorss,  item 26, there were 11 students, item 33 there 18 students, , item 35 there were 12 students  and item 35 there were12 students answered incorrectly.

Conclusion and Suggestions

The conclusion based on the research that the errors made by the seventh grade students in using  inflectional morpehemes  in plural noun morpheme _s       ( 34,56%) , morpheme –ed ( 34,36%) and morpheme –ing ( 31,08%). The students still made errors or got difficulties in using could influenced  by some factors. There were as follow:

  1. The students could not form and choose the correct spelling of the plural noun form for example. Cities, countries, glasses, dressed, armies. The errors made because there were still confused in forming the moprheme because the did know the rules of forming.
  2. The students  thought directly they just should add morpheme “s, ing or ed”
  3. The students could not identify the tenses when they must add the morpheem “–s”, “ ing and ed in the sentences so they made errors in forming it.

The suggestion to teacher of english: the teacher should use media in teaching and learning process especially in teaching about inflectional morphemes in order the students active and remember about morphemes.then, the teacher should give exercise more to the students and the students try to make lesson easier and more interesting so that the students will not get bored.

The sugestion for the students : as a students should listen the teacher explananation inflectional morphemes so they know which one morpheme should add when they find the word in different tense. Then the students should read more book in english and practice how to use the morpheme correctly in sentences in order they are able to answer the question on the examination well and apply their english on the suitable place.

References

Azar, Betty Scrhampfer.1981. Understanding and using English Grammar.           Engewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.

……….1992. Fundamentals of english grammar. Second edition, Engewood Cliffs,            NJ Prentice-Hall Inc.

Fraenkel, jack R and Norman E. Wallen. 1990. How to design and evaluate            research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book.Co

Finegan, Edwar. 2004. Language its structure and use. Fouth edition .City:            Thomson Wadsworth

Fromkin, victoria, Robert Rodmen and Nina Hyams. 2007. An introduction to        language. Eight edition. City: Thomson Wadsworth

Harmer, jeremy. 2005. The Practice of English language teaching. London :           Longman Group Limited

Heaton, J.B.1990. Writing english language test. New edition. Longman     handbook for language teachers. London and New York. Longman Group        Limited

Thomson A.J and Martinet A.V.1986. A practical english grammar.Fourth edition.Oxford: oxford university press.

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